Facilities in CASTEM ~Analytical Corridor~

Crushing, thin-section, and mineral separation laboratory


First step after a field trip is, to pick an area of interest.  Then crash and cut rocks, make a thin section, and make powers.

  • Rock saws
  • Buehler IsoMet, IsoMet 1000
  • Disco DAD522 automatic dicing/cutting saw
  • Thin-section grinder, Maruto prepalap polishers
  • Struers Dao-V, LaboForce-3/LaboPol-5, and RotoPol-35/PdM-Force-20 MD grinding systems
  • Jaw crusher/disc mill/percussion mill
  • Wilfley table, Frantz magnetic separators, and in-house mica separator

 XRF laboratory


Let's start with determination of  mean major element composition of the rock.

  • Philips PW2400 XRF
  • Tokyo Kagaku TK-4200/5910 bead sampler and controller

Chemistry laboratory


  • Titration system
  • Electric muffle furnaces, Drying ovens

SEM-SIMS laboratory


A rock consists of unit named minerals.  After you determine mean major element composition of the rock, you have to describe elemental abundances in each minerals.  Size of a mineral varies from nano to meter scale and our nominal microbeam technique allows description of elemental distribution downto 1 micron scale.  Using SEM, we determine major elemental composition quantitatively.  For trace elemental, ion microprobe (SIMS) would be applied.

  • Electron probes
    •  
    • JEOL JXA-8530F Electron probe analyzer
    • JEOL JSM-7001F FE-SEM, with Oxford X-max (EDS), INCAWave 500 (WDS), and INCAx-act (CL) systems,
    • JEOL JSM-7001FL low-vacuum FE-SEM, with Oxford INCAx-act (EDS) system
  • Ion microprobes: Focused ion beam (typically 15 micron) will sputter area of interest to ionize mineral-consisting elements.  The ions of concern are mass filtered and the ion intensities are determined by ion counter.  The direct ion detection makes this technique high sensitive and allows determination of trace-element abundances.  The nominal sensitivity is 0.1 micro g/g (or ppm).
    • Cameca ims-5f SIMS
    • Cameca ims-1270 high-resolution multicollector SIMS
  • Spectroscopic facilities
    • Thermo scientific DXR Micro-Raman spectrometer
    • Thermo scientific Nicolet Continuum FT-IR
  • Optical microscope:  Before and after analysis, still you have to see what is going on there.  The optical microscope can see three dimensional structure when the sample is prepared in thin section.
    • Olympus BX60 Polarizing Microscopes with VisualStage system
  • Coaters:  Since the probe analyses incident charged particles to the surface of the sample, coating to grantee conductivity is necessary.  We prefer carbon for electron probe and gold for ion probe.
    • Meiwafosis Neoc Osmium coater
    • CADE Carbon coater
    • JEOL JEE-420T Gold and Carbon coater
    • JEOL JFC-500 Gold coaters

TEM laboratory


  • JEOL JEM-2100F, with JEOL EDS and Gatan GIF Tridiem EELS systems
  • JEOL JIB-4500 MultiBeam SEM-FIB
  • OmniProbe AutoProbe 300 nanomanipulator systems
  • JEOL JDS-230F dry pumping system
  • Micromanipulator system (Narishige MWS-1A micromanipulators, Nikon Eclipse FN1 multipatch microscop, Narishige MF-900 micro forge, PC-10 glass puller)
  • Ultra-microtome system (Leica Ultracut UC7)

Stable isotope laboratory


  • Thermo MAT 253 IRMS
  • VG SIRA12 IRMS
  • VG SIRA10 IRMS
  • Thermo Flash 2000 elemental analyzer
  • Thermo TC/EA high temperature conversion/elemental analyzer
  • Thermo GasBench II continuous flow interface
  • Thermo Conflo IV universal continuous flow interface
  • GC-IsoLink gas chromatograph for IRMS
  • Onizuka CO2 laser